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Science Of Genetically Modified Crops The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops. The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically modified crops GM crops are plants used in agriculturethe DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA binary vectors.

The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops

In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments e. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agentsbiofuelsand other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. Farmers have widely adopted GM technology.

The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops

Acreage increased from 1. As ofmajor crop soybean, maize, canola and cotton traits consist of herbicide tolerance In GM Mofified outperformed its predecessors: yield was 5. Non-target organisms were unaffected, except for Braconidaerepresented by a parasitoid of European corn borerthe target of Lepidoptera active Bt maize. Biogeochemical parameters such as lignin content did not vary, while biomass decomposition was higher.

There is a scientific consensus [6] [7] [8] [9] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis https://soundofliberation.com/essay/short-animal-stories/analysis-of-jacques-derrida-s-the-post.php introduction. However, opponents have objected to GM crops on grounds including environmental impacts, food safety, whether GM crops are needed to The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops food needs, whether they are sufficiently accessible to farmers in developing countries [26] and concerns over subjecting crops to intellectual property law.

Safety concerns led 38 countries, including 19 in Europe, to officially prohibit their cultivation. Humans have directly influenced the genetic makeup of plants to increase their value as a crop through domestication. The first evidence of plant domestication comes from emmer and einkorn wheat found in pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages in Southwest Asia dated about 10, to 10, BC. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's SahelNew Guinea and several regions of the Americas.

The Policy Of Genetically Modified Crops

A hybrid cereal grain was created inby crossing wheat and rye. Modern advances in genetics have allowed humans to more directly alter plants genetics. In Hamilton Smith's lab discovered restriction enzymes that allowed DNA to be cut at specific places, enabling scientists to isolate genes from an organism's genome. Plasmidsdiscovered in[36] became important tools for transferring information between cells and replicating DNA sequences. In a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefacienswas discovered and in the early s the tumor inducing agent was found to be a DNA plasmid called the Ti plasmid.

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With the Geneticalyl of the gene gun in it became possible to integrate foreign genes into a chloroplast. In genetically modified seeds were produced in Arabidopsis thaliana by simply dipping the flowers in an Agrobacterium solution. The first genetically engineered crop plant was tobacco, reported in The tobacco was infected with Agrobacterium transformed with this plasmid resulting in the chimeric gene being inserted into the plant.]

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