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Akurasi Terperiksa. Kelompok ini dipimpin oleh dan didominasi oleh anggota Arab Sunni dari Irak dan Suriah. Kelompok ini juga beroperasi atau memiliki afiliasi di berbagai wilayah dunia, termasuk Afrika Utara dan Asia Selatan. Amnesty International melaporkan bahwa kelompok ini telah melakukan pembersihan etnis "berskala sangat besar". Lebih dari 60 negara secara langsung atau tidak langsung berperang melawan NIIS. Kelompok ini awalnya didirikan dengan nama Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad pada tahun , lalu bergabung dengan al-Qaeda pada tahun Kelompok ini terlibat pemberontakan Irak setelah pasukan koalisi Barat menyerbu Irak tahun What Is Islamic State What Is Islamic State

Islam portal. An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law.

After a night of terror, days of mourning.

As a term, it has been used to describe various historical polities and theories of governance in the Islamic world. Implementation of Islamic law plays an important role in modern theories of the Islamic state, as it did in classical Islamic political theories.

What Is Islamic State

However, the modern theories also make use of notions that did not exist before the modern era. Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic lawwholly or in part, into their legal systems.

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Certain Muslim states have declared Islam to be their state religion in their constitutionsbut do not apply Islamic law in their courts. Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred What Is Islamic State as Islamic republics. It represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah nation. It was subsequently transformed into the caliphate by Muhammad's disciples, who were known as the Rightly Guided Rashidun Caliphs — CE. The Islamic State significantly expanded under the Umayyad Caliphate — and consequently the Abbasid Caliphate — The essence or guiding principles of an Islamic government or Islamic state, is the concept of al- Stzte.

Several scholars have different understandings or thoughts, with regard to the concept al-Shura. However, most Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Islamic al-Shura should consist of the following: [4]. Muhammad himself respected the decision of the shura members. He is read more champion of the notion of al-Shura, and this was illustrated in one of the many historical events, such as in the Battle of Khandaq Battle of the Trenchwhere Muhammad was faced with two decisions, i.

After consultation with the sahabah companionsit was suggested by Salman al-Farsi that it would be better if the Muslims fought the non-Muslim Arabs within Medina by building a big ditch on the northern periphery of Medina to prevent the enemies from entering Medina. This idea was later supported by the majority of the sahabah, and thereafter Muhammad also approved it. Muhammad placed great emphasis on Islamuc about the decision of the shura because the majority opinion by the sahabah is better than a decision made by one individual. The Ottoman SultanSelim I — reclaimed the title of caliph which had been in dispute and asserted by a diversity of rulers and shadow caliphs in What Is Islamic State centuries of the Abbasid- Mamluk Caliphate since the Mongols' sacking of Baghdad and the killing of the last Abbasid Caliph in Whar, Iraq Ixlamic The Khilafat Movement leveraged the Ottoman political resistance to the British What Is Islamic State and this international anti-imperial connection proved to be a galvanizing force during India's nascent nationalism movement of the early s for Hindus What Is Islamic State Muslims alike, although India was far from the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate in Istanbul.

However, the Khilaphat found little support from the Muslims of the Middle East themselves who preferred to be independent nation states rather than being under the Ottoman Turkish rule. In the Indian sub-continent, although Gandhi tried to co-opt the Khilafat as a national movement, it soon degenerated into a jihad against non-Muslims, also known as Moplah riots, with thousands being killed in malabar region of Kerala.

What Is Islamic State

The Arabic word dawla comes from the root d-w-lmeaning "to turn, come around in a cyclical fashion". In the Quranit is used to refer to the nature of human fortunes, alternating between victory and defeat This use led Arab writers to apply the word to succession of dynasties, particularly to the overthrow of the Umayyads by the Abbasids.

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Like their Christian contemporaries, pre-modern Muslims did not generally conceive of the state as an abstract entity distinct from the individual or group who held political power. During the 19th century, the Arabic dawla and Turkish devlet took on all the aspects of the modern notion of state while the Persian davlat can mean either state or What Is Islamic State. According to Pakistani scholar of Islamic history Qamaruddin Khan, the term Islamic state "was never used in the theory or practice of Muslim political science, before the twentieth century". Hashmi characterizes dawla Islamiyya as a neologism found What Is Islamic State contemporary Islamist writings. It was also in this context that the famous dictum that Islam is both a religion and a state al-Islam din wa dawla was first popularized. The modern conceptualization of the Islamic state is attributed to Abul A'la Maududi —a Pakistani Muslim theologian who founded the political party Jamaat-e-Islami and inspired other Islamic revolutionaries such as Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

The Islamic state was perceived as a third way between the rival political systems of democracy and socialism see also Islamic modernism. Maududi envisioned the ideal Islamic state as combining the democratic principles of electoral politics with the socialist principles of concern for the poor.]

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