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Woman suffragists in the United States engaged in a sustained, difficult, and multigenerational struggle: seventy-two years elapsed between the Seneca Falls convention and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment During these years, activists gained confidence, developed skills, mobilized resources, learned to maneuver through the oWrldwide process, and built a social movement. This essay describes key turning points Sexism A Worldwide Problem addresses internal tensions as Worldqide as external obstacles in the U. Winning woman suffrage in the United States was a long, arduous process that required the dedication and hard work of several generations of women. Before the Civil War, most read article were radical pioneers frequently involved in the antislavery or other reform movements.
In the early 20th centurywoman suffrage became a mass movement that effectively utilized modern publicity and outreach methods. Sexism A Worldwide Problem suffrage was a radical idea in the 19th century. Suffrage for non-elite white men was still limited in most countries and became the norm in the United States only in the decades before the Civil War—a time when women and people of color were considered deficient in the rational capacities and independent judgment necessary for responsible citizenship.
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Additionally, suffragists often associated themselves with other radical or reformist political groups who supported the demand as a basic right, a strategy for enhancing democracy, or a practical way to gain allies. Prior to the American Revolution, property restrictions limited Sexism A Worldwide Problem white male suffrage. Yet some colonial women voted if they paid taxes, owned property, or functioned as independent heads of households, although this was uncommon. The idea of universal suffrage i. Revolutionary rhetoric did not automatically result Worlvwide equal citizenship rights, but it did provide powerful philosophical arguments that supported future struggles.
Coverture still prevented married New Jersey women from voting.
By definition, women farmers, slaves, textile-mill operatives, and indigents could not meet emerging middle-class norms of female domesticity. Rapid economic, political, and social change exacerbated prostitution, excessive alcohol consumption, and other problems associated with poverty, particularly in the urbanizing northeast.
Both white and African American abolitionist women formed female antislavery societies, but they were criticized when they assumed public roles. When the Massachusetts Council of Congregational Ministers issued a pastoral letter in denouncing their behavior as unwomanly, the sisters responded by defending equality of conscience, emphasizing the importance of female participation in click here abolitionist movement, and drawing parallels between slavery and the disadvantaged status of women.
Elizabeth Cady was already deeply embedded in various reform networks in upstate New York Sexism A Worldwide Problem she married fellow activist Henry Stanton and accompanied him to London to attend the World Anti-Slavery Conference in At the meeting, a fierce debate erupted over seating female delegates, and the women were forced to retreat to the gallery, where William Lloyd Garrison, the most prominent and radical of the American abolitionists, joined them in protest.]